Sunday, May 28, 2017

The Bruce Peninsula Part VII: Majestic Flowerpot Island

 *Part I* *Part II* *Part III* *Part IV* *Part V* *Part VI* *Part VII*

The time has finally come to bring my whirlwind tour of the fabulous Bruce peninsula to a close. It's nearly two years in the making and long over due for completion but better late than never. I have a handful of friends heading up to the Bruce over the next few weeks and I'm green with envy of their trips. What I wouldn't do to sneak away and re-immerse myself in the spring perfection that is one of Ontario's best kept secrets. I'm of the opinion that I saved the best for last and hope you'll agree with that once you've dug into this final installment...

The large flowerpot on aptly named Flowerpot Island

Flowerpot Island. Easily one of the biggest draws for the Bruce peninsula and adjacent Fathom Five National Marine Park. It's a short ferry ride off the northern shores of the peninsula and within this rocky 500 acre crag of exposed limestone lives a plethora of incredible plants, including one very elusive orchid I'd chased for many years.

Flowerpot Island on the horizon with a smaller unnamed island in the foreground

The aqua jeweled waters of the Georgian Bay are dotted with an assortment of rocky islands of varying sizes and interests. Many are very small, uninhabited and seldom, if ever visited but still very aesthetic in their own rights. I'd love to explore these forgotten specks of bedrock and see what plants have managed to colonize and persist. Many of the island's rocks exhibit huge patches of a bright orange-yellow species of lichen that had to have taken centuries to accumulate.

Approaching Flowerpot Island through the morning mist and fog 

Our visit to Flowerpot Island coincided with a thick layering of morning fog and mist that made the island seem even more primordial and mysterious than it already is. The sheer rock cliffs and thick emerald vegetation gave me visions of Jurassic Park for one reason or another and I almost expected to hear the roar of a T-Rex from the depths of the island.

Sheer limestone cliff faces and bluffs of Flowerpot Island

Some of the white cedars (Thuja occidentalis) growing out of the limestone cliff faces on the surrounding islands have been studied and their ages taken by core samples. It's almost impossible to believe but some trees not even a foot in diameter have been determined to be over a millennia old! What tenacious and incredibly hardy organisms they are to have weathered countless bitter winters, horrendous storms, and hot, dry summers.

The famed flowerpots of Flowerpot Island

On the ferry's approach you'll pass right by the island's namesake flowerpots in all their geological glory. Here in this photo the larger of the two sits in the foreground with the smaller one nestled further back. A third flowerpot once occurred but tumbled down back in 1903. I'll dive deeper into these wonderful sea stacks further on in this post.

Bunchberry (Cornus candensis)

Once you dock on the island and exit the ferry you are immediately thrown into a botanical paradise unlike most any place you've been before. The lushness and biodiversity from the start is dizzying and you're left almost numb from a bombardment of pleasures on the senses. We spent as much time on the island as possible but even then time went by far too fast and I felt a bit rushed.

Two trails occur on the island: one is a one-way walk to a sensational wetland known as a marl bed; the other a loop trail that takes you around the eastern half of the island. Both are well worth every step and take you to some fascinating sites, both botanical and geological. However, there is one spot on the island that is ground most hallow and was an instant visit for myself once I set foot on solid ground.

Calypso Orchid (Calypso bulbosa)

In the shaded haunts of one corner of Flowerpot Island's coniferous forests lives a mystical being that I had waited many years to make acquaintances with: the calypso (Calypso bulbosa). This ever more rare denizen of the northern woods is also known as fairy slipper and at first look doesn't appear to belong anywhere else but the equatorial jungle with its countless other bizarre orchid kin. I nearly melted when I first laid eyes on this incredible wildflower and could have spent my entire time on the island staring at its ineffable beauty.

Calypso Orchid (Calypso bulbosa)
Calypso Orchid (Calypso bulbosa)

There were about a dozen calypsos in picture perfect flower with maybe another dozen in their vegetative leaf-only phase. Much like the ram's head lady's slippers (Cypripedium arietinum), I knew this wildflower would be miniscule in size but I was still caught off guard by just how damn dainty they were. The entire flower was perhaps the size of the end of your thumb.

Calypso Orchid (Calypso bulbosa)

I can't recall the last time I sat and intensely photographed a wildflower as much as I did the calypsos. I'd unsuccessfully hunted them for years and even visited this very spot during my first Bruce trip back in mid June 2011. Alas, that visit was too late and I found only leaves and brown husks that were once their otherworldly flowers. The etymology of Calypso's name, which hails from a nymph in Greek mythology, comes from the meaning "to conceal" or "to hide". This makes perfect sense considering this orchid's affinity for dark, secluded boreal forests. And despite its colorful appearance believe me when I say it's an apt hider.

Calypso Orchid (Calypso bulbosa)
Calypso Orchid (Calypso bulbosa)

After finding the calypsos in spectacular shape and finally marking such an anticipated "life" orchid off my list, I don't think my feet touched the ground the rest of the day. I merely floated about the island on wings of pure bliss and botanical joy that only something like this orchid could produce. But as memorable as the calypso is, Flowerpot Island has so many more wildflower treasures to share!

Gaywings (Polygala paucifolia

With every step down the island's trails more and more wildflowers appear from behind their emerald curtain. With no deer or other major herbivores on the island, the flora has a chance to largely grow unimpeded with some amazing results. Not only is the diversity of species eye-popping but the density at which many occur is, too. Huge swathes of gaywings (Polygala paucifolia) covered the ground in many spots, including all over the calypso site with the orchids often growing right out of the middle of it.

Dwarf Rattlesnake Plantain (Goodyera repens
Western Rattlesnake Plantain (Goodyera oblongifolia)

The calypso is hardly the only orchid to call this island home either. Well over a dozen species occur throughout the variable landscape and bring their own charm to the party. While not blooming until a month or so later, two species of rattlesnake plantain orchid's artistic basal rosettes could often be seen in the forest understory. The western or giant rattlesnake plantain (Goodyera oblongifolia) may be the blandest of North America's four Goodyera taxa but make up for it by being yet another odd example of a western disjunct that's right at home in this region of the Great Lakes. It's much more common in the Mountain West and PNW and skips the entire middle of the continent before showing up in a very local fashion here on the Bruce.

Naked Miterwort (Mitella nuda)

Delicate. That's the best word to describe the impossibly adorable flowers of the naked miterwort (Mitella nuda). Each flower appears like a snowflake with its deeply fringed sepals adorning the less impressive petals. Not far from this small colony of the naked miterwort was the two-leaved miterwort (M. diphylla), a species common in Ohio but a scarcity for my friend and botanical companion, Rob. It made me chuckle to have both species nigh on side-by-side with one miterwort common to me but rare to Rob and vice-versa.

Early Coral-root (Corallorhiza trifida)
Early Coral-root (Corallorhiza trifida)

Yet another orchid to grace us with its presence was the limey green stalks of early coralroot (Corallorhiza trifida). While a critically endangered species back home in Ohio, this early bloomer is quite common on the Bruce and occurred all over the more shaded, moist areas of Flowerpot Island. It almost has a ghostly glow to it in the damp, dark understory and makes it rather easy to pick out. 

Striped Coral-root (Corallorhiza striata)

Not to be upstaged by its orchid brethren was plenty of striped coral-root (C. striata) looking dapper in the drier, sunnier forested sections. The overnight soaking rain hadn't fully evaporated off its red and white flowers and gave it a jeweled appearance. While 'striped' is an accurate name for this particular myco-heterotroph, I much prefer the common name of peppermint stick orchid. 

Heart-leaved Twayblade (Neottia cordata)
Heart-leaved Twayblade (Neottia cordata)

The calypso can definitely take home the title for most gorgeous of orchids I saw, and despite being genuinely small it cannot also hold the belt for tiniest orchid. That honor goes to the absolutely, positively dainty heart-leaved twayblade (Neottia cordata). It's an easy one to miss if you don't get one shining in a beam of sunlight on the needle-strewn forest floor. Each flower is the size of a BB at best and requires a hand lens or a camera's macro lens to fully appreciate. I had a terrible time getting a good photo due to the deep shade calling for a slooow shutter speed combined with a slight breeze ever-so-slightly pushing the twayblade around. It was miraculously rediscovered in extreme NE Ohio a few years ago after being thought long lost and extirpated for nearly 80 years! I still need to get up to that site and get this tiny wonder on my Ohio list one of these days.

John exploring the mucky margins of the island's marl bed

Earlier in the post I mentioned a unique wetland on the island known as the marl bed. It's hard to miss when walking by as it appears as an extremely shallow, mucky pond of sorts but don't write it off too quickly! One can, and should spend plenty of time exploring its area for a wealth of quality plants. From orchids like the showy lady's slipper (Cypripedium reginae), which wouldn't bloom until later in June, to dozens of sedge species: the marl bed is a real treat.

Starry False Solomon's Seal (Maianthemum stellatum)

Along the not-as-wet margins of the marl bed was a dense colony of the ever-stunning starry false solomon's seal (Maianthemum stellatum) in full, spectacular bloom. It's by no stretch a rarity in Ohio and I see it frequently in the right spots but it's never one I'd ignore and not give some attention to with my camera.

Bird's-eye Primrose (Primula mistassinica)
Bird's-eye Primrose (Primula mistassinica)

Undoubtedly the marl bed's most exciting bloomer during our visit was scads of the bird's-eye primrose (Primula mistassinica) flowering throughout its mucky margins. It was a species I'd been too late for on my first Bruce trip and was elated to find looking so fine in its alkaline wetland home. 

The picturesque shorelines of Flowerpot Island

After spending plenty of time in the damp, dark, close quarter conditions of the island's interior it's blissful perfection to finally breakout onto the sun-drenched, boulder-strewn, limestone pavement shorelines. The water is as pristine an aqua blue as exists in the northern hemisphere and makes you think you'd found a wormhole to the Caribbean.

The unmistakable blue perfection of the Georgian Bay

Flowerpot Island is literally nothing more than a giant exposed crag of limestone bedrock and its shorelines show that splendidly. The huge bedrock pavement pieces almost immediately give way to deeper water right off the coast and make for a gorgeous transition of water colors from aqua to deep sapphire blue.

Wall-rue (Asplenium ruta-muraria)
Wall-rue (Asplenium ruta-muraria)

Don't let the scenery of the island's shorelines distract you from botanizing, though! There's plenty more to be had among the boulders and limestone cobble. Some careful searching of the larger moss and lichen covered rocks can reward the patient with patches of the very rare and disjunct wall-rue (Asplenium ruta-muraria). This fern is predominately an Appalachian species found from New England down to Alabama, but fascinatingly occurs hundreds of miles north of any other sites on the Bruce and nearby Manitoulin Island and the Straits of Mackinac area. I don't know what it is about the Bruce that makes it act like such a plant magnet for oddities like this but I freakin' love it!

The large flowerpot
As promised it's time to show off the most prominent feature of Flowerpot Island and its namesake: the flowerpots! These sea stacks were formed over the millennia by water, waves, ice and wind all hammering away at the cliffs along the island's shoreline. Softer rock layers slowly eroded and as the water levels waxed and waned post glaciation it finally left these two unique pillars that we see today. It's hard to believe that man had nothing to do with their formation and all it took was time and opportunity for nature and its power of erosion to do its thing.

Your blogger posing with the larger flowerpot
The smaller, but still awesome flowerpot

Judging just how big the larger of the two flowerpots is is a hard task without something for scale. So what better than your blogger to provide such a service! It's a lot bigger when you get up close to it and you kind of just have to stare in awe and wonder at the odds this thing beats to continue standing year and year, decade after decade. The smaller one is only a third the height but both contain some genuine bonsai white cedar trees that somehow, someway manage to survive growing out of nothing more than a crack in the limestone. I compared photos with extremely similar angles of both flowerpots from my 2011 and 2015 trips and could not notice any bit of growth from any of the cedars. They're seemingly frozen in time, at least from a human being's lifespan's viewpoint.

Slender Cliff Brake (Cryptogramma stelleri)

Another limestone-loving fern you might be lucky enough to see while on Flowerpot Island, and other select areas of the mainland peninsula is the slender cliff brake (Cryptogramma stelleri). It prefers cool, shaded, moist fissures and cracks in the bedrock and exhibits dimorphic fronds, or fronds that differ in their appearance based on whether they're fertile or sterile. The fertile fronds have a lacier, skinnier look to them, while the sterile ones have a more blunt, stubby shape.

Wild Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis)
The rocky shorelines and small flowerpot

The alvar-like shorelines are full of other fascinating plant life and a diversity of wildflowers for those that can peel their eyes away from the water and flowerpots. Species like wild columbine (Aquilegia canadensis), upland white goldenrod (Solidago ptarmicoides), bearberry (Arctostaphylops uva-ursi), northern bog violet (Viola nephrophylla), harebell (Campanula rotundifolia) and ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius) are but a handful of wildflowers that grow all over the place.

Flowerpot Island sitting in the jeweled waters of the Georgian Bay as you head back for the mainland

I've really only scratched the surface of Flowerpot Island but hope it was enough to show just how amazing a place it is. It's well worth a day of your time up there to head out and explore its forested depths, limestone bluffs, and incredible shorelines.

Well, all good times must come to an end and this long look back on my unforgettable spring 2015 trip back up to the Bruce has finally come full circle. I really hope you've enjoyed this detailed look at what all this gem of a location has to offer and it has inspired you to take a trip up there one of these years. Or maybe it has rekindled your love for it and caused a deep-rooted passion to return to its beauty once more. I really want to make a return trip later in the summer sometime and re-experience it all over again with different plants. The Bruce is one of eastern North America's most incredible of botanical, geological, bird-rich, and scenic of landscapes and I wish I could do her better justice than I have. The Bruce will always be near and dear to my heart for the rest of my days no matter how many times I return. Thanks so much for following along and I hope to see you back for more botanical adventures soon.

- ALG -

Friday, April 7, 2017

The Bruce Peninsula Part VI: An Alvar Wonderland

 *Part I* *Part II* *Part III* *Part IV* *Part V* *Part VI* *Part VII*

One of the Bruce peninsula's most remarkable and noteworthy of natural treasures is its abundance of a unique habitat known as an alvar. I've mentioned the term and habitat type a number of times during this series but now it's time to dive head first into this globally rare occurrence and dedicate some much deserved attention to its botanical wonders.

Alvar pavement complex on the northern Bruce peninsula

As mentioned, alvars are a globally rare habitat and only occur in the Great Lakes of North America, and the Scandinavian/Baltic region of northwest Europe. It's a habitat characterized by flat, exposed limestone/dolostone bedrock with very little soil accumulation. Really, it looks like an immense parking lot with patches of accumulated soil, plants, mosses and lichens. The previous glacial epoch scoured this landscape clean of organic material and often left signs of its presence as long gashes, grooves, scrapes etc. in the bedrock. Ohio's Kelley's Island in Lake Erie is well known for this stunning geological feature. 

Ontario is the official alvar headquarters of North America with 85% of the continent's remaining habitat. The Great Lakes region's alvar can be organized into five general categories: pavement, grassland, savanna, shrubland, and shoreline. We've seen shoreline alvar previously at both Singing Sands and Halfway Log Dump; most of this post will deal with the pavement sub-type. It's taken nature literally thousands of years to reclaim the landscape and soil to accumulate enough to support plant life again.

And plant life has definitely returned! Alvars naturally result in a grassland-type ecosystem, and a unique one at that. The landscape is punished nearly year round by the elements and makes for a harsh place to live. The winters are bitterly cold and snow-filled; the summers bake the landscape to a dry crisp. This, along with the very shallow, if any soil accumulation does a great job of keeping trees at bay and the alvars open. Spring, however is the alvar's time to shine, at least botanically. The melted snows and seasonal rains fill the alvar's shallow depressions and fissures with water and creates a stunning rock garden of epic proportions. The botanical diversity is surprisingly impressive and even offers some evolved specialists that only call this limestone parking lot home as you'll come to see.

Large Yellow Lady's Slippers (Cypripedium pubescens)

One of the most obvious and conspicuous of wildflowers to colonize the alvars in the Bruce region is the large yellow lady's slipper (Cypripedium pubescens). Back in Ohio this species is largely restricted to high-quality woodlands with rich, fertile soil but up here they are much more of a generalist and grow just about anywhere. The dry, shallow, gravelly soils of the roadsides and alvars seem to be their favorite haunts, though.

Rob inspecting an alvar fissure for the rare fern we were after

Walking out onto the Bruce's alvar pavement is like stepping onto another world. Some places are literally nothing more than pure limestone bedrock with the only life being tiny pockets of moss and lichen that can eek out a precarious existence. Large cracks and fissures aren't an uncommon sight and provide a small habitat niche for many plants, especially some of the area's rare ferns we were after.

Green spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes-ramosum)
Green spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes-ramosum)

If any theme keeps resurfacing during this series, it's the fact that the Bruce and adjacent areas seem to be a nexus for western disjunct species to thrive. Yet another example of this is the green spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes-ramosum) (also see: A. viride). Green spleenwort is an uncommon species in North America but mostly found in the Mountain West and scattered locations in the Great Lakes and Northeast. Our group managed to come across a handful of sites for it, with my favorite being this clump growing literally out of the rock within a crack in the alvar pavement.

Maidenhair Spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes)

For the few times we found the green spleenwort, we were tricked a dozen more by the common look-a-like maidenhair spleenwort (A. trichomanes). It would often grow right alongside its rarer kin and offered a great chance to see the distinguishing features: the best of which being green spleenwort's distinctly green rachis versus the maidenhair's black rachis.

Scarlet paintbrush out on the open alvar pavement

One of the alvar pavement's most distinguished of wildflower denizens is the unmistakable scarlet paintbrush (Castilleja coccinea). It occurs just about everywhere there's enough moisture and light on the Bruce and in the most pristine of areas can carpet the landscape with its brilliant color. 

Limestone Oak Fern (Gymnocarpium robertianum)

Another of the Bruce's more rare pteridophytes on my radar during our botanical foray was a big life species for me and with the help of Bob Curry, you'll remember him from my previous post on Inglis Falls and the Hooker's orchid, it quickly had a check next to its name on my list. In an isolated complex of alvar pavement was a small fissure that has housed a colony of the limestone oak fern (Gymnocarpium robertianum) for decades. If you come to the Bruce for the orchids, you should stay for the ferns! Both are in great supply on this tiny spit of the Niagara Escarpment.

Limestone Oak Fern (Gymnocarpium robertianum)
Limestone Oak Fern (Gymnocarpium robertianum)

It's never a bad thing to have such a trustworthy and consistent spot for such a rare plant, and I, for one was very thankful Bob was willing to share it. Limestone oak fern is a rarity throughout its limited range in the northern Midwest and western Great Lakes, and is at about its easternmost known locality on the northern tip of the Bruce peninsula. Its appearance is very similar to the rest of its oak fern ilk but for the glandular nature of its rachis and stipe. This gives the plant a silvery sheen at close inspection and is a bit sticky to the touch, too.

Spring makes the alvars come alive with wildflowers!

The alvars are snow and ice-covered all winter and dried to a crisp of little else but drought-tolerant grasses, sedges, mosses and lichens come summer. But that small window of opportunity in the spring makes them truly come alive! Late May into mid June allows for an explosion of wildflowers unlike little else I've seen. Our arrival was just a bit too late for the peak bloom of thousands upon thousands of the globally rare lakeside daisy (Tetraneuris herbacea) but the scenery was still spectacular.

Lakeside Daisy (Tetraneuris herbacea)
Lakeside Daisy (Tetraneuris herbacea)

Earlier on in this series I gave a brief preview of this remarkable wildflower on the alvar shorelines of Halfway Log Dump and mentioned it was hardly the best place to see them. Hopefully the photos in this post prove I was right! You'd never know the yellow blossoms of this daisy was so rare or special if all you knew was its presence on the Bruce. Lakeside daisy is an alvar specialist and is only known to occur on alvar in select areas of the Great Lakes. It was isolated long ago during the series of glacial events and evolved into its own unique being to color the limestone pavement come late May.

Blue Flag Iris (Iris brevicaulis)

It's an interesting contrast to see pure bedrock covered in millennia of accumulated moss and lichen crust and then literally right next to it see a fissure full of a wetland species like blue flag iris (Iris brevicaulis). The Bruce's alvars go a long ways in showing that no one and nothing is a finer gardener or landscape artist than Mother Nature herself.

Nodding Trillium (Trillium cernuum)
Nodding Trillium (Trillium cernuum)

I couldn't help but share one of my absolute favorite of wildflower finds during my time up north, even if its not an alvar species. After exploring a particularly awesome complex of alvar remnants, we came to a woodland stream that was flush with vegetation. All along its banks was a trillium I'd only had the pleasure of seeing once before in the nodding trillium (Trillium cernuum). It's a genuine species of the northern woods and is quickly disappearing from its southern range for reasons not fully known. It looks nearly identical to the more southern drooping trillium (T. flexipes) but for its anther's filament length. Nodding trillium's anthers hang well outside the whorl of petals on long filaments; drooping trillium's anthers are tucked back against the base of the ovary on very short, often unseen filaments.

Purple Cliffbrake (Pellaea atropurpurea)

A surprise fern find while out on the alvars was a familiar face to this Ohio botanist but yet another great rarity for the Bruce. The purple cliffbrake (Pellaea atropurpurea) isn't all that uncommon in Ohio, where it's restricted to vertical limestone cliff faces, but to occur so far north is another testament to the Bruce's affinity for fern diversity. As mentioned, I've only ever seen this species growing in a vertical fashion so it was quite the shock to see it happy as could be in the full sun on the horizontal alvar pavement.

Alvar pavement landscape

Lakeside Daisy (Tetraneuris herbacea)
Yellow and red never looked so swell together

A few more scenes of the Bruce's springtime wildflower wonder on the alvars never hurt anyone! I could spend a lot more time delving deeper into the alvar's flora. Hell, I could do an entire post on the dozens of exciting sedges that call it home, but I'll end things here and hope it's inspired you to experience this globally rare and exciting habitat for yourselves one day. I'd love to get back up there during the early summer months to experience the Bruce in a whole new way. I have one last post to share before I call this series done and I think I've saved the best for last! So check back soon and leave your thoughts and comments below. Thanks again for taking the time read and hopefully enjoy this incredible world!

- ALG -